All of these images are actual photographs taken at night. Color was added using gels & flashes & other imaginative means. Because Night Photography collapses long periods of time into a single frame, it enables the photographer to capture magic, unlike Photoshop, which enables one to manufacture magic. There is an enormous difference between photographs and digitally-manipulated images. To the extent the latter adds or subtracts information, it is factually misleading and dishonest. And while I respect and appreciate the power of digital manipulation, it has impugned the authenticity of the photograph. If we take it upon ourselves to identify the unmanipulated photograph, we won’t ever have to wonder whether magic actually entered the frame. It did.